By the mids, the inch LP, like its similarly sized 78 rpm cousin, would lose the format war and be discontinued. Ten-inch records briefly reappeared as Mini-LPs in the late s and early s in the United States and Australia as a marketing alternative. In , Columbia Records introduced "extended-play" LPs that played for as long as 52 minutes, or 26 minutes per side.
The minute playing time remained rare, however, because of mastering limitations, and most LPs continued to be issued with a to minute playing time. A small number of albums exceeded the minute limit. But these records had to be cut with much narrower spacing between the grooves, which allowed for a smaller dynamic range on the records, and meant that playing the record with a worn needle could damage the record.
It also resulted in a much quieter sound. Spoken word and comedy albums require a smaller dynamic range compared to musical records. Therefore, they can be cut with narrower spaces between the grooves. Turntables called record changers could play records stacked vertically on a spindle.
This arrangement encouraged the production of multiple-record sets in automatic sequence. A two-record set had Side 1 and Side 4 on one record, and Side 2 and Side 3 on the other, so the first two sides could play in a changer without the listener's intervention. Then the stack was flipped over. Larger boxed sets used appropriate automatic sequencing 1—8, 2—7, 3—6, 4—5 to allow continuous playback, but this created difficulties when searching for an individual track.
Vinyl records are vulnerable to dust, heat warping, scuffs, and scratches. Dust in the groove is usually heard as noise and may be ground into the vinyl by the passing stylus, causing lasting damage. A warp can cause a regular "wow" or fluctuation of musical pitch, and if substantial it can make a record physically unplayable.
A scuff will be heard as a swishing sound. A scratch will create an audible tick or pop once each revolution when the stylus encounters it. A deep scratch can throw the stylus out of the groove; if it jumps to a place farther inward, part of the recording is skipped; if it jumps outward to a part of the groove it just finished playing, it can get stuck in an infinite loop , playing the same bit over and over until someone stops it. This last type of mishap, which in the era of brittle shellac records was more commonly caused by a crack, spawned the simile "like a broken record" to refer to annoying and seemingly endless repetition.
Records used in radio stations can suffer cue burn , which results from disc jockeys placing the needle at the beginning of a track, turning the record back and forth to find the exact start of the music, then backing up about a quarter turn, so that when it is released the music will start immediately after the fraction of a second needed for the disc to come up to full speed.
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When this is done repeatedly, the affected part of the groove is heavily worn and a hissing sound will be noticeable at the start of the track. The process of playing a vinyl record with a stylus is by its very nature to some degree a destructive process. Wear to either the stylus or the vinyl results in diminished sound quality.
Record wear can be reduced to virtual insignificance, however, by the use of a high-quality, correctly adjusted turntable and tonearm, a high-compliance magnetic cartridge with a high-end stylus in good condition, and careful record handling, with non-abrasive removal of dust before playing and other cleaning if necessary.
The average tangential needle speed relative to the disc surface is approximately 1 mile per hour 1. It travels fastest on the outside edge, unlike audio CDs, which change their speed of rotation to provide constant linear velocity CLV.
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By contrast, CDs play from the inner radius outward, the reverse of phonograph records. The cutting stylus unavoidably transferred some of the subsequent groove wall's impulse signal into the previous groove wall.
It was discernible by some listeners throughout certain recordings but a quiet passage followed by a loud sound would allow anyone to hear a faint pre-echo of the loud sound occurring 1. Pre- and post-echo can be avoided by the use of direct metal mastering. The first LP records introduced used fixed pitch grooves just like their 78 predecessors.
The use of magnetic tape for the production of the master recordings allowed the introduction of variable pitch grooves. The magnetic tape reproducer used to transfer the recording to the master disc was equipped with an auxiliary playback head positioned ahead of the main head by a distance equal to one revolution of the disc.
The sole purpose of this head was to monitor the amplitude of the recording. If the sound level from both the auxiliary and main magnetic heads was loud, the cutting head on the disc recording lathe was driven at its normal speed.
However, if the sound level from both magnetic heads was quieter, then the disc cutting head could be driven at a lower speed reducing the groove pitch with no danger of the adjacent grooves colliding with each other. The playing time of the disc was therefore increased by an amount dependent on the duration of quieter passages. The record manufacturers had also realised that by reducing the amplitude of the lower frequencies recorded in the groove, it was possible to decrease the spacing between the grooves and further increase the playing time. These low frequencies were then restored to their original level on playback.
Further, if the amplitude of the high frequencies was artificially boosted on recording the disc and then subsequently reduced to their original level on playback, the noise introduced by the disc would be reduced by a similar amount. This gave rise to an equalization frequency response applied during record coupled with an inverse of the response applied on playback.
Each disc manufacturer applied their own version of an equalization curve mostly because each manufacturer's equalization curve was protected by interlocking patents. Low-end reproduction equipment applied a compromise playback equalization that reproduced most discs reasonably well. However, amplifiers for audiophile equipment were equipped with an equalization selector with a position for most, if not all, disc manufacturers.
The net effect of equalization is to allow longer playing time and lower background noise while maintaining full fidelity of music or other content. Consequently, both low-quality and audiophile reproducers alike could replay any recording with the correct equalization. There are two versions of the reproduction RIAA equalization curve. The first, is simply the inverse of the recording curve designed for cheaper equipment using crystal or ceramic reproduction cartridges.
The second curve is intended for equipment fitted with magnetic reproduction cartridges where the output voltage is dependent on the frequency of the recorded signal the voltage output is directly proportional to the frequency of the recorded signal; that is: the voltage doubles as the recorded frequency doubles.
The audio quality of LPs has increased greatly since their inception. While early LP recordings were monophonic , stereophony had been demonstrated in and Alan Blumlein had patented Stereophonic sound in Unsuccessful attempts were made to create stereophonic records starting in the s, including Emory Cook 's "binaural" LPs using two precisely spaced tracks on the record one track for each channel which had to be played with two monaural pick-ups on a tuning-fork-shaped tonearm. The modern system ultimately released by Audio Fidelity Records in November uses two modulation angles, equal and opposite 45 degrees from vertical and so perpendicular to each other.
It can also be thought of as using traditional horizontal modulation for the sum of left and right channels mono , making it essentially compatible with simple mono recordings, and vertical-plane modulation for the difference of the two channels. The composition of vinyl used to press records a blend of polyvinyl chloride and polyvinyl acetate has varied considerably over the years.
Virgin vinyl is preferred, but during the s energy crisis , it became commonplace to use recycled vinyl. Sound quality suffered, with increased ticks, pops, and other surface noises. Records in different novelty shapes have also been produced. Many critics have expressed skepticism regarding the cost and quality of HD records. The audio engineering software was created with mastering engineers Scott Hull and Darcy Proper, a four-time Grammy winner. The demonstration offered the first simulations of what HD Vinyl records are likely to sound like, ahead of actual HD vinyl physical record production.
Disc jockeys or DJs in clubs still frequently use vinyl records, as cueing tracks from cassette tapes is too slow and CDs did not allow creative playback options until The skill came in subtly matching beats or instruments from one song to the next, providing a consistent dance tempo. DJs also made occasional announcements and chatted on the side with patrons while songs were playing to take requests, similar to what radio disc jockeys have been doing since the s. Media related to LP records at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Analog sound storage medium. This article is about vinyl records. For music albums in general, see Album. For other uses, see Long Play disambiguation. For the album by the Faces, see Long Player album. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message.
This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. Standard Vinyl. Retrieved December 18, The Vitaphone Project. Retrieved Retrieved August 12, The New York Times.
September 18, Retrieved November 25, New York: Saturday Review Press, Scott, a Developer of the LP, Dies at 92". Retrieved October 8, Howard H. Scott, who was part of the team at Columbia Records that introduced the long-playing vinyl record in before going on to produce albums with the New York Philharmonic, Glenn Gould, Isaac Stern and many other giants of classical music, died on Sept.
He was New York: Thunder's Mouth Press; p. Retrieved April 6, — via robertchristgau. The UK album chart reaches its 1,th No Archived from the original on December 10, Retrieved December 31, Retrieved May 11, The Sound of Vinyl Blog. Like Verizon Media, our partners may also show you ads that they think match your interests.
Invention | History of the LP Record
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